Rubber Technologists Handbook
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION : Brief Historical Review, The Uniqueness of Rubber, Survey of the Current Handbook, Closing Remarks. NATURAL RUBBER : Source, Cultivation, Harvesting, Biosynthesis of Rubber, Composition of Latex, Crop Collection, Crop Processing – Preservation and concentration of latex, Rubber smoked sheet, Pale latex crepe and sole crepe, Field coagulum crepe, Technically Specified rubber. Modified Forms of NR – Physically modified forms, Chemically modified forms of NR. Properties of Natural Rubber – Raw rubber, Vulcanised rubber. Vulcanisation – Vulcanisation with rubber, Non-sulphur Vulcanisation. Applications – Tyre, Engineering applications, Conveyor beltings, Lining. SYNTHETIC ELASTOMERS : Synthetic and Natural Elastomers - Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, The need for synthetic Elastomers, Compounding and Vulcanisation, Synthetic Elastomer polymerisation, Mechanisms, Polymer synthesis processes. Diene Elastomers – Polybutadiene, Polyisoprene, Styrene-butadiene rubber. Saturated Elastomer – Ethylene-propylene copolymers (EPM) and ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers (EPDM), Butyl and halobutyl rubber, Ethylene-acrylic Elastomers. Solvent Resistant Elastomers – Nitrile rubber, Polychloroprene, Acrylic Elastomers, Chlorosulphonated polyethylene. Temperature Resistant Elastomers – Silicone rubber, Fluorocarbon Elastomers. Specialty Elastomers - Phosphazenes, Polyethers, Structure, Ring opened polymers. Thermoplastic Elastomers – Styrene block copolymers, Thermoplastic polyurethanes. THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS : Thermoplastic Elastomers versus thermoset rubbers, Types of thermoplastic Elastomers. Block Copolymers – Polystyrene/Elastomer block copolymers, Polyester/Elastomer block copolymers, Polyamide/Elastomer block copolymers, Polyurethane/Elastomer block copolymers. Dynamically Vulcanised Rubber/Plastic Blends – EPDM/polyolefin, NBR/polyolefin, Natural rubber/polyolefin, Butyl rubber/polyolefin, Melt processable rubber. Ionic Thermoplastic Elastomers – Ionic Elastomers, Ionomeric polyblends. FILLERS : Preface, Manufacture of Carbon Black, Surface and Particle Structure of Carbon Black, Carbon Black Aggregate Structure, Classification of Carbon Black, Mixing of Carbon Black with Rubber and Carbon Black Dispersion, Rheology of Carbon Black Filled Rubber, Viscoelasticity of Carbon Black Filled Rubber, Physical Properties of Carbon Black Filled Rubber, Non-Black Fillers and Application. RUBBER ADDITIVES – COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS : Vulcanising Agents - Sulphur, Sulphur donors, Peroxides, Urethane Crosslinking, Metal oxides, Other vulcanizing agents. Vulcanisation Accelerators - Sulphenamides, Thiazoles, Guanidines, Thiurams, Dithiocarbamaters, Dithiophosphates, Miscellaneous, N-Nitrosamines and accelerators. Activators of Vulcanisation, Retarders and Inhibitors of Vulcanisation, Antidegradants – Antioxidants, Antiozonants. Antireversion Agents – Zinc carboxylates, Thiophosphoryl derivatives, Silane coupling agents, Sulphenimide accelerator, Hexamethylene-1,6-bis thiosulphate disodium dihydrate, 1,3-Bis (citraconimidomethyl) benzene. Plasticisers and Softeners – Petroleum products, Coal tar products, Pine products, Synthetic softeners Miscellaneous Ingredients – Peptising agents, Blowing agents, Bonding agents. RUBBER MIXING : Mechanisms of Mixing – Viscosity reduction, Incorporation, Dispersion, Distribution. Rheology of Mixing – Flow behaviour of rubber compounds, Measurement of state-of-mix, Dependence of flow behaviour on state-of-mix, Kinetics of dispersive mixing, Mixing of blend compounds. Heat History, Batch Mixing Methods and Systems – Two-roll mills, Internal mixers-design and performance, Internal mixers-operation, Mixing sequences. Batch-off Extruders and Festoon Coolers, Materials Handling, Instrumentation and Control of Mixing, Continuous Mixing – Continuous mixing versus batch mixing. Powder weighing blending and handling, Continuous mixing-principles, Continuous mixers – examples. DURABILITY OF ENGINEERING PRODUCTS : Outline Design Factors of Seals, Hoses and Cables, Durability Aspects – The structural nature of rubbers, General mechanical properties, Properties for long-term performance. Definitions of Failure, Life Assessment - Predictions, Permeation/diffusion etc at high pressures/different temperatures, Factors which can override predictions. Case Studies – Components and Models – Predictions by time alone, Effects of fluid environments, Effects of temperature on predictions. ENGINEERING WITH ELASTOMERS : Design Equations – Static Force/Deflection Behaviour - Shear, Compression, Curved bearings, Non-linearity, Instability. Design Principles-Dynamic Properties – Theoretical background, Transmissibility, Effect of Elastomer type and temperature, Effect of Non-linearity, Effect of fillers and strain amplitude. Fatigue of Elastomers for Engineering Components – Material behaviour, Calculation of tearing energies for different geometry components, Finite element analysis. Environmental Factors – The effect of low temperatures, Durability, Rubber/metal bonds. TESTING : General, Test piece preparation, Conditioning, Density, Dimensions. Processability Tests – Viscoelastic flow behaviour, Curing characteristics, Other tests. Mechanical Properties – Hardness, Tensile stress strain properties, Compression stress strain, Shear stress-strain, Tear tests, Dynamic stress strain, Creep, stress relaxation and set, Fatigue, Abrasion. Other Physical Properties - Friction, Electrical properties, Thermal properties, Permeability, Staining. Environmental Resistance – Effect of temperature, Effect of liquids, Effect of gases, Weathering, Biological attack, Fire resistance.. TRENDS IN TYRE TECHNOLOGY : Tyre basics, New Tyre Materials - Rubbers, Fillers, Fabrics and steel wires. Tyre Manufacturing Technology – Process optimization and design robustness, Design for manufacturability. Tyre Performance – Rolling resistance, Treadwear, Ride and handling, Wet/snow/ice traction, Run-flat safety tyres, Intelligent or smart tyres. Advancement of Tyre Technology with Computers – Computer aided engineering, Computational modelling of tyres. AUTOMOTIVE RUBBERS : Rubber Selection – Determination of the environmental conditions, Choice of rubber, Validation of the choice of rubber, Example: manifold seals. Identification and Characterisation of Rubber, Rubber Applications in the Car – Rubber in the car, Applications where rubber is present, Chemical constraints, Appearance of the body seals. The Future of Rubber in the Automotive Sector – The transport of fluids, Seals, Suspensions/damping and fixings, Mechanical functions of transmissions, Timing belt. RUBBER COMPOUNDING IN FOOTWEAR : Running Shoes - Polymers, Fillers, Pigments, Cure systems, Plasticisers, processing aids and oils, Antidegradants, Typical formulas, Methods of manufacture. Safety Shoes – Nitrile rubber-based compounds, Poly(vinyl chloride)/nitrile blends, Polychloroprene-based compounds. High Durability Compounds – Carboxylated nitrile based compounds, Blends with high styrene resins, Polybutadiene-based compounds. High Traction Compounds – Polyisobutylene-isoprene based compounds, Fillers, Plasticisers, processing aids and oils, Antidegradants, Cure systems, Typical formulas, Mixing. Blown Rubber Compounds – Classifications of foams, rubber-based compounds, Ethylene vinyl acetate rubber-based compounds. Clear Compounds – Ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber-based compounds, Diene rubber blends. Court Compounds, Autoclave Shoes – Shoe production. Thermoplastic Elastomers – Classes of TPE, Styrenic TPE, Thermoplastic polyurethanes, Copolyester TPEs, Polyether polyamide TPE, Thermoplastic polyolefins, Elastomeric alloys. Polyurethane Elastomers - Isocyanates, Polyols, Polyurethane Elastomers, Production methods, Millable polyurethane gums, Cast polyurethane Elastomers. Poly (vinyl chloride) – PVC compounding, Production Methods, Typical formulas. RUBBER IN CONSTRUCTION : Vibration Control, Floors, Walls and Windows, Adhesives and Sealants, Roofing and Waterproofing. RUBBER RECYCLING : Recycling of Rubber Vulcanisates – Pyrolysis and incineration, Grinding methods, Pulverisation methods, Reclaiming processes, Wave methods. The Usage of Recycled Rubber – General remarks, Rubber/recycled rubber blends, Thermoplastic/recycled rubber blends, Asphalt modified by tyre rubber, Cement modified by tyre rubber. Abbreviations and Acronyms. INDEX.