The Science & Practice of Rubber Mixing
Table of Contents
Polymerisation and Molecular Architecture : Natural Rubber, Styrene-butadiene Copolymer, Polybutadiene, Nitrile Rubber, Ethylene-propylene Terpolymer, Polyethylacrylate, Polydimerthyl Siloxane, Masterbatches, What is Rubber? Formulation, Mixing Equipment. Mill Processability : Mastication and Mill Processability, Interpretation of Mill Processability, Science of mill Processability. Overview of Mixing of Rubber : Unit Processes, Interpretation of the Mixing Process, Compaction as a Part of the Mechanism in Incorporating Carbon Black into an Elastomer. Viscoelasticity and Fracture : Introduction to Viscoelasticity, Viscoelasticity for Characterisation, Viscoelastic Behaviour of Rubber in an Internal Mixer, Mechanism of Fracture of Gum Rubber. Characterisation of Gum Rubber Using Dilute Solution Methods : Gel Determination, Dilute Solution Method, Relationship Between Dilute Solution Properties and Processability. Viscoelastic Characterisation of Gum Rubber : Methods of Describing Deformation, Non-linear Viscoelasticity, Conventional Methods of Characterisation, Characterisation Based on Viscoelasticity, Processability and Molecular Structure, Processability and Viscoelastic Characteristics, Cis-1,4-polybutadiene, Polyethylacrylate. Linear viscoelasticity – Linear viscoelasticity and mixing of rubber, Relaxation time and its distribution, Linear viscoelasticity as a conceptual background for the mixing of rubber, Viscoelasticity and memory Viscoelastic Characterisation of Rubber Compounds : Viscoelastic Properties of Compounds, Strain and Strain-rate Amplification, Unique Characteristics of Compounds, Application of Characterisation Methods for a Specific Problem – Effect of fillers and rubber structures on tensile behaviour of filled, unvulcanised compounds of cis 1,4-polybutadiene. Rheology of Gum Rubber and Compound : Rheometry, Slip, Extrudate Shrinkage, Yielding, Effect of Concentration and Structure of Carbon Black – Hydrodynamic theories, Concentration dependence. Reinforcing Fillers and Liquid Additives : Reinforcing Fillers – Mixing case of fillers, Structure of aggregate and agglomerate. Liquid Additives. The Energy Aspects of Mixing Rubber : Energy Balance – Experiment, Experimental programme, Results, Mixing Mechanisms : Problems Associated with Internal Mixers, Approach to Simulation, Proposed Model of a Mixing Mechanism – Changes in material during mixing, Mechanical actions, Material-machine interaction, Macroscopie versus microscopic deformation. Modelling of the Fracture of Rubber Particles – Material, Dynamic state of the Elastomer, Basic mixing model, Model of unit processes. Model of Material Behaviour in the Internal Mixer – Material properties, Pressure profile in the internal mixer, Deformation of material between rotor edge and chamber wall, Probability and distribution in mixing, Calculation of mixing energy. Discussion, Nano and Molecular Scale of Mixing, Chemical Reactions During Mixing, Optimisation of Operation and Improvements of Mixers – Optimum state of the Elastomer for mixing, Improvements in rotor design. Post-Mixing Processes : Extrusion – Causes of non-uniformity in feeding, Material behaviour in the screw, Flow mechanisms in the extruder, Homogenisation devices before the die entrance and after the exit. Mixing and Extrusion of High Silica and all Silica-Natural Rubber Compounds – Samples, Mixer and mixing conditions, Extruder and extrusion test, Results and discussion. Injection Moulding – Flow mechanisms. Material Testing, Quality Control and Process Control : Material Testing, Test for the Uniformity of Gum Rubber, Mooney Relaxation Curve, Testing for Uniformity of Compound, Process Control. Mixing of Rubber Without Using a Mill or Internal Mixer : Masterbatch, Continuous Mixing, Handling of New Material. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Author Index. Company Name Index. Main Index.